Face to Face in a Fair Game

Pretty 24 is a new cream on the block. Its advertisement takes a potshot at various narratives associated with fairness advertising in India; however, its communication is silent on the benefits of the product. The angry (or upset) young women vent their ire as they feel betrayed by the hordes of Fairness creams in the market. The advertisement ends with a product shot, claiming it as a cream for every skin tone. The brand targets women between 20 and 35 years of age, as reported in livemint.Pretty good… The fairness cream market in India is fairly mature. From general purpose Fairness creams to Men’s Fairness creams to dark spots reduction fairness creams to winter fairness creams; every conceivable sub-category promise has been exploited to grow the market, which is reportedly around INR 4500 crore, and growing! In such a scenario, category creation by careful segmentation holds the key to success for a new entrant in a crowded shelf as the `Anti’ position puts the new entrant in direct competition vis-à-vis the rest. Also, the ability to leverage existing distribution network adds to the muscle mass so critical for success. On all these counts, Pretty 24 sits pretty.


The dark side… Is Pretty 24 a little late? Is it being built on a carefully chosen plank or hunch? Or, is it a manifestation of confusion at the Marketer’s end? Is it an idea whose time peaked some 10, 15, 20 years ago?In India, the pride factor in one’s `own’ complexion has already gained ground; especially with girls-next-door winning the titles such as Ms India, Supermodel, etc. And to the buyer of very premium international brands, complexion has never been an issue. Over the years, most of the fairness cream brands have formulations that offer benefits beyond mild-bleaching to include skin moisturization at the very least.For the Fair’y Tales inspired buyers in Tier II and III, semi-urban centres; it is still `Fairness’ all the way to success. So who is the brand Pretty 24 targeting? And what’s the `reason to buy’, it is offering to the consumers (unless subsequent campaign reveals it).The leader in the `Fairness’ category i.e. Fair & Lovely has long gone beyond `Fairness’ to `Confidence’ and `Success’. There is more to the Brand Fair & Lovely as evident in the tales chronicled in the Fair & Lovely Foundation brochure done by this author. The foundation is doing yeoman service to nurture aspiring, young talented women.


It remains to be seen how the new entrant will affect it. Is Pretty 24 an attempt to cut an instant slice of fairness cream market in India? At mere 1% share translates into INR 40-50 crore!In all fairness… Pretty 24 has to its credit of being not just another offering. It takes immense guts to experiment, to be different. The communication and the proposition make one take cognizance of the brand. But will it make a dent? For a brand’s salience eventually is connect with (benefit offered to) the consumers; and not mere attempts at evoking resentment against other brands.

Retail Design for Vehicle Showrooms

Why the Right Retail Design is Important for Motor Showrooms

When vehicles undergo constant design upgrades and enhancements to make them more appealing and efficient, it stands to reason that the spaces that market them should do so too. Inspired by new ideas of efficiency and aesthetics that guide the designs of cars and other vehicles, the showroom environment can aspire to the same principles, powered by branding and relevant retail design drawings. In fact, the right retail store layouts can almost immediately and directly impact sales and productivity.

As the corporate branding world is trending in the direction of specific fixtures, fittings, furniture and other collaterals that showcase and reinforce corporate identities in car stores, the role of comprehensive retail store plans in transforming showrooms into bespoke retail spaces cannot be underestimated. This is where 3D architectural modelling and BIM modelling services become invaluable.

To further branding goals, the structure and circulation of the retail space is critical. Once this is decided, ambience can be developed through lighting, sound, materials and branded touchpoints. Brand graphics and their positioning build the confidence of potential customers. Motor showrooms display their products in vast open spaces. Exact positions of each vehicle at the showroom layout is dimensionally represented by accurate retail drawing sets. While preparing the layout plan, the length and breadth of any display systems or racks are shown.

Within the branding purview of structure and circulation, consistency is important. Exterior branding, structural features and signage should follow inside and entice, interest and fortify the product. To ensure this consistency, a dedicated team is essential. Each client employs individual corporate branding, communication, style guidelines and standards. A dedicated team assigned to a client can be trained to deliver each client requirement. These can include:

  • Space planning design
  • Interior design
  • Elevations – exterior and interior
  • Store refurbishment drawings
  • Updating existing designs
  • Detailing of store features, such as signage, mannequin locations and light fixtures

Typically, a project manager is identified, who then undergoes training with a client representative. This training is passed on to a dedicated team of engineers and architects, who study design guidelines and deliver high quality drawings to the client and receive regular feedback. Communication is accurate and issues are resolved quickly.

Motor Retail Design Elements

Standards for each aspect of the showroom experience are planned and designed, from internal and external spaces to entrances to circulation systems. Retail space must allow for both permanent and non-permanent features, such as features that may change when new models arrive. Structural constraints affect overall design; columns, stairways, ceiling height, windows and emergency exists are all factors. In motor showrooms, all available space must be utilised. Floor plans guide circulation, which then inclines the consumer to travel to important displays and, ultimately, to the sales associate. Car showrooms can be quite grand, displaying double-height glazing, bright lights and expensive stone/ceramic floors, but customers require clear routes to the service area/workshop. Also, showrooms must be large enough for the number of cars that need to be displayed. Even service bays in the body shop and the number of technicians must be considered. The use of detailed retail design drawings and BIM technology ensure that the required parameters for all these features are adhered to.

Vehicular display is prime, but there is also a high standard for building services that must be maintained. Effective cooling in customer areas must counteract heat absorbed in highly glazed areas. Sustainable properties could lead to lower energy bills, lowering overheads. With effective MEP coordination, the features to alleviate loads, energy use and carbon emissions that could be planned are:

  • Extended eaves, brise-soleil and canopies, which reduce solar gain, especially on the main façade
  • Roof lights to provide basic lighting needs
  • Enhanced insulation for cladding and roofs
  • Motion-detecting lighting for bathrooms and other areas not always in use
  • Double-glazed glass insulated compact sectional access doors that allow maximum natural light, while being useful for vehicular movement. They conserve air conditioning and insulate the building.

A soothing yet impressive ambience adds extra edge to the showroom experience, and this is a zone where MEP drawings, models and coordination play a major role. Primarily, this is achieved by lighting and materials, but sound and audio also play a key role, providing it appeals to the target market. But to get back to lighting, the right lighting may perhaps cause the greatest dramatic effect in a motor showroom. Functionality and the ability to showcase display vehicles are vital. This involves layered lighting, with a choice of intensities and fixtures. The lighting of the ceiling and roof should cover structural features and direct customers to key areas.

With valuable display vehicles, security is important. Ideally, motor showrooms have access control, alarms and sophisticated internal and external CCTV, with movement tracking and links to remote monitoring centres, yet another feature to benefit from relevant MEP coordination.

Perspective

In the end, a well-executed retail space must be viewed from the consumer’s perspective. Retail design should control the customer’s view of the retail space. All of these crucial factors would be difficult to plan without the necessary elevations and walk-throughs provided by advanced architectural designs, specifically retail store CAD drawings and 3D models by Revit.

Retail Design Drawings for Motor Showrooms

Effective planning for motor showrooms call for exceptional design models and drawings. Preferred drafting stages and services for retail spaces include:

  • Store Concept
  • Floor Design & Fixtures
  • Electrical and Lighting
  • Customized Colour and Material Matching

Designers and drafting service personnel with relevant inter-domain expertise can utilise their experience to coordinate business and retail for a brand. Services on offer are:

  • Zoning, layout design
  • Interior design, graphics and visual branding
  • POS displays and locations
  • Design detailing and seasonal roll-outs

These can be customized with integrated 2D retail drafting for specific client requirements. With BIM modelling solutions, these can also be turned into detailed 3D space rendering, where the entire retail space plan can be visualised by the client. Textures of walls, colour schemes and other details can be viewed in realistic conditions with the use of 3D space renders. This allows modifications before the design is approved for production drawings. A major advantage is that scale modelling costs can be saved.

Seamless project execution can occur using AutoCAD and Revit software. This means project steps can be monitored in real time, projects can be completed and moved to the quality check stage, which can be performed thoroughly based on project scope. The retail drawing sets can be reviewed in its final form by the client and valuable feedback can be implemented. In the final design stages, a final quality check can be conducted. Skilled drafting services by retail space planners are updated with global retail trends, some still in a process of evolution. These services can greatly contribute to maximising potential in a motor showroom and provide customers with the best planned retail environment.

Since retail design drafting services are inevitable in the process, it seems logical to consider how cost-effective and quality-efficient they can be. Global trends lean toward the growing popularity of outsourcing these tasks. The reasons are compelling.

Advantages of Outsourcing Retail Design

Less Costly – Outsourced retail design drawings are competitively priced compared to the same quality and quantity of work executed locally, and since many outsourced firms employ work shifts, drawings or 3D architectural models are delivered faster.

Global Exposure – Outsourcing firms are exposed to retail establishments across the globe. Thus, the technical personnel are well qualified, well trained and well acquainted with international building codes and brand guidelines.

Flexibility – Outsourced firms can generally operate either as a small dedicated team or as a large team of 40 draftsmen or more to execute projects of larger volume or those with quick turnaround times, so work can be scaled to perfectly meet requirements.

Updated Expertise – Outsourced firms employ technical personnel who excel at BIM and are generally well updated on other software, including AutoCAD, Revit, etc.

Extensive Experience – Trusted outsourced firms have been designing and drafting retail spaces for years for clients in Europe and the UK.

Quality outsourcing services provided for retail design include:

Production Drawings Sets

Besides providing complete construction drawing sets from Autodesk (Revit or AutoCAD) to the retail industry, SolidWorks has been used to create engineering drawings. All key drawings, including floor plans, internal elevations, external elevations, construction plans, setting-out drawings, composite plans, finishing plans, lighting and ceiling plans, comprehensive equipment schedules and material and component take-off data are included.

Retail Design

Retail design, documentation, and project management, concept design and layouts are provided.

3D/4D Models

Using Revit Architecture and Revit MEP tools, 3D models and scan-to-BIM services, using point cloud data, are provided, with 4D scheduling added for new site construction.

Retail BIM Data

BIM services provide automated schedules to ensure, accuracy, speed of design output, rendering and visualisation tools to create realistic views.

Manufacturing/Assembly Drawings

Manufacturing and assembly drawings for bespoke retail furniture, fixtures and fittings, using AutoCAD detailing software is provided.

Floor Plans

Colour-coded floor plans and 3D plans.

Computer Generated Images

Computer-generated images for external and internal views are generated, showing images with artistic and watercolour effects.

In conclusion, for the detailed demands of retail design in motor showrooms, the ideal option seems to be the way of outsourced firms, as they offer one-stop shops for creating initial 2D drawings from rough sketches and photos to delivering 3D models for space design and final production drawings. They offer services tailor-made for specific business needs that are easy to execute and flexible to modifications. They employ highly qualified staff with experience, knowhow and talent for retail design drawings and the expertise to use the latest software in the retail design industry. Most importantly, this ultimately helps save time and cost.

Successful Design Management for the 6 Stages of Design of Infrastructure and Building Projects

Design Management

Design Management seeks to establish project management practices that are primarily focused on enhancing the design process. For Infrastructure and Building projects the successful implementation of Design Management throughout the entire Project Life Cycle can represent the difference between a superior outcome for the project in terms of Quality, Timing, Cost and Value or failure, given the complexity of Infrastructure and Building projects in today’s environment.

Design Management is however primarily focused on the Design Process within the project framework and as such is only a part of the overall Project Management of a project, albeit a critical part of the project.

If you are going to be a successful Design Manager and achieve superior outcomes for both your clients and your own business, you cannot manage design haphazardly and expect consistent results. You must manage design projects by undertaking a proven stage by stage process. This brief article outlines those stage by stage processes and gives the Design Manager a guide to successfully design managing Infrastructure and Building projects. The Design Management role is considered in this article in the context of an in-house or consultant client side Design Manager and not a Design Manager within the design team itself. It is also on the basis of a fully documented Design and Construct only contract.

Stage 1: Early Design Management Involvement-Statement of Need

The output for this stage will be a Design Report that will directly feed into the Client’s Statement of Need and overall Business Case.

Early involvement to the Project Life Cycle is important but this may need to be reinforced with the Client to appreciate and understand the benefits this will provide. There are several key tasks during this stage:

1.1 Obtaining and Assessing all the available key design Information

  • Collation of all available data and information
  • Visit the site
  • Review contract as related to design aspects
  • Review the level of the design that has been prepared to date
  • Evaluate information and highlight critical issues
  • Review findings with Client
  • Assess the team capability requirements and resourcing
  • Assess any spend on fees required at this stage
  • Engage consultant as required to provide required technical and project inputs to assist the preparation of the design report.

1.2 Design Risk Review

  • Identify design risks and create a Design Risk Register
  • Identify any Safety in Design issues
  • Analyse and provide suggestions for risk mitigation for ongoing stages
  • 1.3 Design Report Input to Statement of Need
  • Prepare draft of design report input into the Statement of Need report and review with Client
  • Prepare final Design Report component into the Statement of Need report

Stage 2: Design Management during the Outline Design Stage

With the Statement of Need or Business Case formally approved for the project to proceed, the next step is to get the Outline Design Stage going.This stage involves clearly defining the Client requirements and project needs so as to form a sound foundation for the design process to proceed and is the right time to engage consultants and set up the formal Design Management process. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

2.1 Define Client design requirements and project design needs

  • Gather all available and updated project data from the Client.
  • Identify any gaps in the information provided.
  • Meet with the Client to review the information provided and identify additional information required.
  • 2.2 Engage Design Consultants
  • Engage all the key consultants that are required to develop the Functional Design Brief. It is critical that the consultant’s scope of work is clear for the level of input required and clearly noted in their Contract.

2.3 Prepare Functional Design Brief

  • Manage and coordinate the consultant team to deliver the Functional Design Brief that will respond to and record all the client requirements and needs and form the basis to proceed for all disciplines.
  • The Functional Brief will generally be supported by Concept design sketches that provide an outline of the proposed design.

2.4 Prepare the Design Management Plan (DMP)

The DMP provides the roadmap for the way the design will be managed and needs to be prepared at this stage of the design process for best results. The DMP is a component of the Project Management Plan prepared by the Project Manager.

The key Design headings in a DMP are as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Project Overview
  • Objectives
  • Process and related procedures
  • Status
  • Documentation & Deliverables Schedule
  • Value Engineering
  • Reviews
  • Change Management
  • Independent Third Party Checks, Permits
  • Quality Management
  • Client Approvals
  • Close Out & As Built Record

2.5 Outline Cost Plan

  • Manage and coordinate the development of the Outline Cost Plan with the Quantity Surveyor, with input from all the relevant consultants.

2.6 Identify Design Risks

  • Identify Design Risks within the overall Risk Management framework.
  • Analyse and manage risks and update the Risk Register, design out risks where possible.
  • Ensure Safety in Design requirements are followed.

2.7 Value Management

  • Arrange a Value Management workshop. Value Management is a systematic review of the essential functions or performance of a project to ensure that best value for money is achieved. It takes an overall view of the function of the project as well as capital and recurrent costs.
  • Prepare a Value Management Report and implement recommendations.

2.8 Project Approvals

  • Outline and define the planning approval process and coordinate with the design process requirements.

Stage 3: Design Management during the Schematic Design Stage

With the Outline Design Stage formally approved for the project to proceed to the next stage, the next step is to get the Schematic Design Stage going. This stage involves developing the design across all the disciplines in response to the approved Functional Design Brief. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

3.1 Manage the Development of the SchematicDesign

  • Manage the team in developing the Schematic Design.
  • Monitor the compliance of the Schematic design with the Functional Design Brief.
  • Review Design Programme and coordinate with overall project programme.
  • Coordinate the development of the Schematic Design with the project procurement process.
  • Manage the preparation of the Schematic Design Report which contains drawings and outline specifications for all disciplines.

3.2 Schematic Design Cost Plan

  • Manage and coordinate the development of the Schematic Cost Plan with the Quantity Surveyor, with input from all the relevant consultants.
  • Identify any major design decisions to the Quantity Surveyor that could influence cost.

3.3 Identify Design Risks

  • Identify Design Risks within the overall Risk Management framework.
  • Analyse and manage risks and update the Risk Register, design out risks where possible.
  • Ensure Safety in Design requirements are followed.

3.4 Value Engineering

  • Arrange a Value Engineering Workshop, including external peer reviewers to negate any “built in” resistance to change and get a fresh perspective
  • Prepare a Value Engineering Report and present to the Client and implement approved Value Engineering recommendations within the Schematic Design Report or in the detailed design stage as appropriate.

3.5 Project Approvals

  • Review and update the planning approval process and coordinate with the design process requirements.
  • Manage the submission of any required Planning Approval Applications.

3.6 Update the DMP

  • Review and update the DMP as required catering for the current project circumstances.

Stage 4: Design Management during the Detailed Design Stage

With the Schematic Design Stage formally approved for the project to proceed to the next stage, the next step is to get the Detailed Design Stage going. This important stage involves developing the design to tender and construction across all the disciplines in response to the approved Schematic Design Report. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

4.1 Manage the Development of the Detailed Design

  • Manage the team in developing the Detailed Design ready for tender including as required coordination meetings between disciplines experiencing coordination difficulties and the exchange of progress design drawings and specification for proper inter-disciplinary coordination.
  • Manage changes and variations.
  • Monitor the compliance of the Detailed Design with the Schematic Design Report, Value Engineering recommendations and the Functional Design Brief.
  • Review Design Programme and coordinate with overall project programme
  • Coordinate the development of the Detailed Design with the project procurement process including early issue of documents to the Quantity Surveyor to start the Bill of Quantities. Any “shortcuts” in the deliverables to accommodate the tender programme need to be fully understood and agreed
  • Coordinate the inputs to the development of the Contract documents being prepared by the Project Manager
  • Consider the requirement for lead disciplines that are producing background and base drawings, such as architects on building projects, to complete these ahead of the supporting engineering disciplines, so as to allow the supporting disciplines adequate time to complete their dependent work. The team cannot realistically work effectively all in parallel to deliver all at the same time without some lag with the lead discipline. It also allows time for the lead consultant to review the documentation from the dependent disciplines. Allow adequate time in the design programme for this lag in completion and coordination.

4.2 Detailed Design Cost Plan and Pre Tender Estimate

  • Manage and coordinate the development of the Detailed Cost Plan with the Quantity Surveyor, with input from all the relevant consultants.
  • Identify any major decisions to the Quantity Surveyor.
  • Prepare for the Pre Tender Estimate (PTE).
  • Take any required action if the PTE is in excess of the Detailed Design Cost Plan.

4.3 Identify Design Risks

  • Identify any additional Design Risks within the overall Risk Management framework.
  • Analyse and manage any remaining risks and update the Risk Register, design out risks where possible
  • Ensure Safety in Design requirements are followed

4.4 Peer Review and Value Engineering

  • Arrange for the drawings and specifications that are being prepared for Bill of Quantities or that are at 90% completion to be issued for external Peer Review to review the “tender readiness” of the tender documents for each of the disciplines. This is also the time to review the consistency of the presentation of the documents across all disciplines and the adherences to project protocols such as title sheet formats, sheet sizes, drawing extents and overlaps, drawing scales, document numbering and revision notation.
  • As part of the Peer Review, Value Engineering of the detailing within the tender documentation should be undertaken at the same time to ensure the detailed design is the most efficient possible.
  • Manage the peer review responses and issue to the team to respond to the comments and incorporate the recommended and agreed comments or mark ups. Allow adequate time in the design programme for this important process.

4.5 Project Approvals

  • Review and update the planning approval process and coordinate with the design process requirements.
  • Manage the submission of any required Planning Approval Applications.
  • Obtain any required certification from the consultants.
  • Manage any required inputs to obtain the required Planning and Building approvals.

4.6 Update the DMP

  • Review and update the DMP as required to cater for the current project circumstances
  • 4.7 Tender Readiness Report
  • Prepare Tender Readiness report to the Client recommending issue to tender including any project issues or risks and the PTE.

Stage 5: Design Management during the Tender Stage

With the Detailed Design Stage Tender Readiness Report formally approved for the project to proceed to Tender, the next step is to arrange the design documents to be issued for tender. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

5.1 Prepare Design Documentation for Tender

  • Manage the team in delivering the documents as per the DMP at the required time in the required hardcopy and soft copy formats to the required locations.
  • Collate the required document transmittals.

5.2 Housekeeping

  • Take the opportunity to catch up with housekeeping of files on the server, in local drives and hardcopies.

5.3 Tender Technical Queries and Clarifications

  • Manage all incoming tender technical queries and clarifications during the tender period and arrange responses from any of the team where required.
  • Participate in any Tender clarification meetings with the contractor as requested by the Project Manager.

5.4 Addendums

  • Manage any design and documentation requirement for addendums that are required due to omissions from the Tender due to time constraints or from new Client requirements.

5.5 Tender Evaluation

  • Manage all required technical tender review and evaluation inputs from the team to allow the tender to be evaluated from a technical perspective.
  • Where required prepare a technical evaluation report and deliver to the Project Manager.
  • Participate in any negotiation meetings where technical matters require further clarification and arrange appropriate technical inputs from team.

5.6 Manage Consultants

  • Manage the finalisation of design related fees and any outstanding variations and claims.

Stage 6: Design Management during the Construction Stage

With the Tender formally awarded and on the assumption that the Project Manager will typically manage the construction phase delivery of the project, then the role of Design Manger will generally be reduced during this stage to a support role only or where required due to incomplete or ongoing design development resulting from client variations or changes made during tender negotiations. The following are some of the key tasks in this stage:

6.1 Issue Approved For Construction(AFC) documents

  • Manage the team in delivering the AFC documents as per the DMP at the required time in the required hardcopy and soft copy formats to the required locations.
  • Collate the required document transmittals

6.2 Housekeeping

  • Take the opportunity to complete the housekeeping of files on the server, in local drives and hardcopies

6.3 Outstanding Design

  • Manage the team in delivering any outstanding design due to client changes or changes resulting from tender negotiations

6.4 Manage Contractor Design Submissions

  • Subject to the complexity of the design, assist the Project Manager to manage the team in reviewing and responding to any contractor designs.

Design Management in Action

The above methodology represents a general approach for Design Managing Infrastructure and Building Project. This methodology has been applied successfully to numerous projects undetaken by the author, however as any Design Manager will know, every project is different and every design and project team is generally comprised of different team members.

The key to making the above methodology work is studying, applying and start implementing it to suit your particular project. It offers focus and a clear direction for any design for an Infrastructure or Building project to achieve a superior outcome for your Client and your own business.

Decoding the Ductwork Design Process, Methods and Standards

Today, one of the significant objectives in MEP engineering design for HVAC design engineers is to improve energy efficiency, maintain air quality and thermal comfort. Energy efficiency, air quality and comfort in a building depend on how heating, cooling and air distribution systems are designed and this is where careful ductwork design plays a significant role. Ductwork and HVAC system design are important as it ensures indoor air quality, thermal comfort and ventilation. If the HVAC system and ducts are not designed accurately, it could lead to poor air quality, heat loss and make the conditioned space in the building uncomfortable.

The primary function of the ductwork design system is to ensure a least obtrusive channel is provided through which cool and warm air can travel. When designed accurately, HVAC air distribution systems will play an important role in countering heat energy losses, maintaining indoor air quality (IAQ) and providing thermal comfort.

To understand how ductwork can be designed in a cost-effective and efficient manner, this article decodes ductwork design and provides a brief outline of the design process, methods and standards.

What is Ductwork?

The basic principle of ductwork design is to heat, cool or ventilate a building in the most efficient and cost-effective way. The primary function of ductwork is to design conduits or passages that allow air flow to provide heating, cooling, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

In the duct design process, the basics of air flow must be understood. Return air goes into an air handler unit (AHU), through a filter and into the blower and with pressure it goes through the A coil or heat exchanger and then it goes out into the supply air system. If the ductwork is designed correctly it enables the AHU to produce the right amount of air through the heat exchanger. In a typical air distribution system, ducts must accommodate supply, return and exhaust air flow. Supply ducts provide air required for air conditioning and ventilation, return ducts provide regulated air to maintain IAQ and temperature and exhaust air flow systems provide ventilation.

For ductwork design to be efficient, MEP engineering design teams need to have designers with a mechanical and engineering background. Ductwork design specialists or building service engineers must also possess thorough knowledge of other disciplines such as architectural, civil and structural concepts to ensure HVAC systems are clash free.

The Ductwork Design Process

The ducting system design process is simple, provided that the specifications are clearly mentioned and the inputs regarding application, activity, building orientation and building material are provided. Based on the information provided calculations can be completed to create an energy-efficient and clash-free design. Typically, air conditioning and distribution systems are designed to fulfil three main requirements such as:

• It should deliver air flow at specific rates and velocity to stipulated locations.

• It should be energy efficient and cost effective.

• It should provide comfort and not generate disturbance or objectionable noise.

The process of ductwork design starts once architectural layouts and interior design plans are provided by the client or MEP consultants. Building service engineers then require specification requirements such as application, the number of people, the orientation of the building and architectural characteristics to make calculations on heat load and air flow. Before any calculations are carried out, single line drawings are drafted to showcase the flow of ductwork in the building. Once they are approved, calculations for heat load and air flow are conducted. Once the heat load calculations are complete, the air flow rates that are required are known and the air outlets are fixed. With the calculations, specifications and layout, the ducting system design layout is then designed taking into consideration architectural and structural details of the conditioned space and clashes with other building services such as electrical, plumbing (hydraulic) and mechanical services.

To start the ductwork design process there are inputs required regarding details about the type of application, specification requirements, building orientation, architectural characteristic and material.

• Application type - Ductwork design will vary based on the type of application the building will be used for such as manufacturing, data centres, medical applications, scientific research and comfort applications such as restaurants, offices, residences, institutional building such as schools and universities.

• Specification requirement – To create an efficient duct design, designers need to know what type of activity will be conducted and the average number of people that will use the conditioned space. This will help in calculating the air flow, velocity and heat load required to maintain temperatures and IAQ. In comfort applications, for instance, an office or restaurant will require different duct design and air velocity than a residence.

• Orientation and material of the building - The orientation of building and material used plays a key role in gauging heat absorption which will help determine the cooling and ventilation requirements. Based on whether a building faces north, south, east or west, and where it is geographically located, heat absorption can be calculated. The type of material used for construction also affects the amount of heat gain and loss of the building.

The challenges of incomplete inputs or non-availability of required inputs are discussed in an upcoming article on Ductwork Design Challenges and Recommendations.

Ductwork Design Methods

Ductwork design methods are usually determined based on the cost, requirements, specifications and energy efficiency standards. Based on the load of the duct from air pressure, duct systems can typically be classified into high velocity, medium velocity and low velocity systems. There are three commonly used methods for duct design:

1. Constant Velocity Method – This method, designed to maintain minimum velocity, is one of the simplest ways to design duct systems for supply and return air ducts. However, it requires experience to use this method as the incorrect selection of velocities, duct sizes and choice of fixtures could increase the cost. Moreover, to maintain the same rate of pressure drop in duct runs, this method requires partial closure of dampers in duct runs (except index run) which could affect efficiency.

2. Equal Friction Method – This conventional method used for both supply and return ducts maintains the same frictional pressure drop across main and branch ducts. This method ensures dissipation of pressure drops as friction in duct runs rather than in balancing dampers. However, like the velocity method, partial closure of dampers is required and this could lead to noise generation.

3. Static Regain Method – This method commonly used for large supply systems with long ducts is a high velocity system that maintains constant static pressure before each branch or terminal. While this is a balanced system as it does not involve dampering, longer ducts may affect air distribution to conditioned spaces.

While different duct design methods used vary from application to application, duct system performance and system balancing and optimisation need to be considered. After the air handling unit (AHU) is installed, the system needs to be balanced and optimised to enhance performance. In system balancing and optimisation, air flow rates of supply air outlets and return air inlets are measured, and dampers and fan speed are adjusted. Especially in large buildings, balancing air conditioning systems may be expensive and time-consuming, but it is required as it provides benefits that outweigh the cost incurred in installing the system. To minimise total and operating cost, many optimisation methods are used as such as the T-Method Optimisation described in the DA3 Application Manual of AIRAH (Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning).

To design air distribution systems that are energy efficient and cost effective, HVAC system designs must include basic engineering guidelines and adhere to certain design standards. Let us consider some of the guidelines and standards used in the industry in different countries.

Ductwork Design Standards

When designing air conditioning systems, HVAC design engineers must be knowledgeable about the basic methods, guidelines and standards applicable, from the type of units used, calculations required, methods of construction, type of material, duct system layouts, pressure losses, duct leakage, noise considerations to optimisation using testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB). Listed below are some of the standards organisations and associations in the U.S., U.K., Australia and India, that provide manuals, codes and standards for the HVAC industry.

U.S.

• SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association) – It provides a manual on HVAC systems duct design that includes basic yet fundamental methods and procedures with importance on energy efficiency and conservation. While the manual does not include load calculations and air ventilation quantities, it is typically used in conjunction with the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.

• ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) – It is an association that emphasises on the sustainability of building systems by focusing on energy efficiency and indoor air quality. The ASHRAE Handbook is a four-volume guide that provides the fundamentals of refrigeration, applications, systems and equipment. Updated every four years, the handbook includes international units of measurement such as SI (systems international) and I-P (inch-pound).

U.K.

• CIBSE (The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) – is the authority in the UK that sets standards for building services engineering systems. The Codes and Guidelines published by CIBSE are recognised internationally and considered as the criteria for best practices in the areas of sustainability, construction and engineering.

• BSRIA (Building Services Research and Information Association) – is an association that provides services that help companies enhance their designs to increase energy efficiency in adherence to Building Regulations, mock-up testing of systems and BIM support.

Australia

• AIRAH (Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning) – provides technical manuals for professionals in the HVAC industry and information ranging from air conditioning load estimation, ductwork for air conditioning, pipe sizing, centrifugal pumps, noise control, fans, air filters, cooling towers, water treatment, maintenance, indoor air quality and building commission.

India

• BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) – is a national authority that provides standards and guidelines as per the International Organization for standardisation (ISO). The handbooks by BIS stipulates the code of practices applicable to the HVAC industry such as safety code for air conditioning, specification for air ducts, thermostats for use in air conditioners, metal duct work, air-cooled heat exchangers and data for outside design conditions for air conditioning for Indian cities

• ISHRAE (The Indian Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) – provides indoor environmental quality standards and testing and rating guidelines based on common IEQ parameters standards and criteria for the classification of buildings based on energy efficiency.

While HVAC design engineers must keep relevant standards in mind and ensure that local codes are applied in designs, energy efficiency is a primary objective as well. Ductwork design plays a significant role in regulating indoor air quality, thermal comfort and ventilation. The key function of ductwork design is to provide the least obtrusive channel through which cool and warm air can travel in the most efficient and cost-effective way.

Inaccurate duct designs could result in poor indoor air quality, heat loss and uncomfortable conditioned space in the building. A well-designed air conditioning HVAC system will ultimately optimise costs. By regulating pressure loss, selecting the right duct size, balancing air pressure and controlling acoustics, ductwork designers could optimise manufacturing, operational, environmental and commissioning costs.